Confronting the ‘glucose father’ label: get older and financial Asymmetries and dangerous intimate Behavior in downtown Kenya


“Sugar daddy” relations, which you’ll find are described as huge young age and financial asymmetries between associates, are considered as a significant factor in the spread of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. Information is needed about glucose daddy partnerships—and about years and economic asymmetries better generally—to see how popular these are generally and if they is pertaining to unsafe erotic attitude.


The trial composed 1,052 people outdated 21–45 who were questioned in Kisumu, Kenya, in 2001. Reports on these as well as their unique 1,614 previous nonmarital partnerships are examined to calculate the prevalence of sugar daddies and sweets dad associations, including many different years and economic disparities within nonmarital collaborations. Logistic regression versions had been produced to evaluate associations between condom use finally sexual intercourse and various other steps old and financial asymmetry.


The mean age difference in nonmarital erotic lovers got 5.5 ages, and 47percent of men’s female mate comprise teenagers. Fourteen % of relationships included an age gap for at least a decade, and 23percent engaging above the hostile volume male-to-female material support. Boys just who reported one partnership with both these traits are thought as glucose daddies and made right up 5percent associated with the design; glucose daddy relations taken into account 4percent of collaborations. Sugary foods daddy partnerships as well most extensive era and economic asymmetries we constructed happened to be associated with reduced probability of condom utilize.


Although sweets daddy connections are certainly not because persistent as usually presumed, generation and economic asymmetries in nonmarital relationships were fairly typical. These forms of asymmetries happen to be involving nonuse of condoms. Rising women’s electrical power within asymmetric erectile connections could improve their capacity to bargain more secure intimate demeanor, such condom use.

International Personal Preparation Position, 2005, 31(1):6–14

A large amount of anecdotal facts indicates that “sweets daddies” are frequent in Sub-Saharan Africa and they are assisting to power the scatter of HIV. The stereotypical sugars daddy are a mature men which switches huge amounts of cash or gift ideas for sex-related mementos from a lot more youthful girl. Sugars father dating is associated with both get older and financial asymmetries, that are believed to limit ladies’s capability to negotiate less risky erotic habit.

The alarm over sugars daddies might sounded not only in the African preferred discussion but by experts and medical care people. Professionals care that glucose daddies would like up teen couples with rising volume for the idea these types of women are extremely unlikely for contaminated with HIV. 1 overall health communities bring considered these guy specially challenging with devoted programmatic means to advertisments that inform women to “beware of glucose daddies.” 2 During The era of HIV/AIDS, sugars father dating happen built as a health worry, regularly described “the sweets father symptoms,” “the sweets father hold” or “the sugars daddy technology,” whereby ladies, frequently teens, keep many of the possibility. 3

The belief that sugar daddies are extensive appears fair in numerous African contexts, because social norms typically allow (or even encourage) guys to engage in sex away from nuptials together with more youthful partners. 4 as well as, socioeconomic realities enable guys to monopolize sourced elements of profits allow senior guys much friendly and economical power than young men. 5 the fact that glucose daddies exercise unsafe intimate actions are reliant on increasing research that HIV problems stages is higher among adolescent female than among all of their males equivalents. Eg, research in Kisumu, Kenya (the internet site of our own research), found that 27percent of females outdated 15–19 comprise affected with HIV, compared with 5% of males because age-group. 6 Age disparities in sexual relations have-been granted as a likely reason involving this huge difference, because charge of HIV illness are sometimes higher among adult guys than among male teenagers. 7 Although huge generation and economic asymmetries between sex-related business partners exists throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, they raise the the majority of concern whenever united in sugar father relations.

Despite these ostensibly sensible assumptions about glucose daddies, there is no empirical research they are popular or they are likely to engage in harmful sexual actions. Are glucose daddies less likely to want to use condoms than many other males? Can they exercise risky conduct to all of the company’s connections, most notably those without years and economic asymmetries? In addition, bit of is well know regarding backlink between non-safe sex and so the split the different parts of glucose father associations: get older and economical asymmetries. 8 our very own research employs data on male nonmarital sexual habits in Kisumu to research some of the common presumptions neighboring sweets daddies and their sexual associations. The prevalence of HIV reached 26% in Kisumu in 1997, 9 which implies that unsafe erectile behavior is widespread; consequently, this city provides an intriguing framework where you can examine get older and financial asymmetries between nonmarital business partners.

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